Country - Tajikistan
Oblast (region) - Sughd
Founded - VII-VI centuries B.C. First written mention – second half of VII centry
Previous names – Alexandria Eskhata, Khodzhent, Leninabad
City since - 1936
Area - 2852 sq.m
Altitude – 300 m
Official language - Tajik
Population – 155. 4 thousantd people (2009)
Ethnic composition - Tajik, Uzbek, Russian
Religious composition - Muslims, Christians
Time zone - UTC+5, in ther UTC+e summ6
Telephone code - +992 3422
Postal code - 735700
Auto license plate code - 02РТ
Khujand isa city in northern Tajikistan, an administrative center of Sughd.
155.4 thousand inhabitants (2009). One of the oldest cities in Central Asia. Second largest city of Tajikistan, an important transportation hub as well as apolitical, economic, cultural and scientific center of the country.
Contemporary name of the city is Khujand, sometime written as Khodzhent or Khujandt
From 10 January 1936 through 26 February 1991 the city was called Leninabad (in honor of V.Lenin). Based on the decision of Supreme Soviet of Tajik SSR № 246 dated 26 February 1991, the city was given back its original name.
Geography and climate
Khujand is located on the banks of the Syr Darya river, downstream from the Kairakkum reservoir, 35km away from Uzbek city of Bekabad. Khujand is part of the Ferghana valley, located between the Turkestan range in the south and Mogoltau Mountains in the north.
The city is located 200km northeast of Dushanbe (341km by road).
The history of the city goes far back. The city existed as early as during the Achaemenid dynasty. The army of Alexander the Great, conquered the city and fortified it, calling it Alexandria Eskhata (“the furthest”). In VIII century Arabs conquered the city. In 1219—1220 the city put up fierce resitatnce to the troops of Genghis Khan, but was eventually destroyed. Since the ancient times, due to its location at the crossroads of trade routes of the Great Silk Road, the city of Khujand has always been one of the most important economic, military, strategic and cultural centers of Maverannahr.
The city was conquered by the Russian army on May 24, 1866 and became part of the Russian Empire. This opened up new opportunities for Khujand as it became one of the large commercial centers in the densely populated area, rich with natural and economic resources, and a major site of roads connecting Ferghana valley, Tashkent oasis and the Zeravshan valley.
The Soviet rule was established in the city in 1918 and on October 2, 1929 Khujand was included in the Tajik SSR. In the postwar period, Leninabad city became second largest city (after Dushanbe) as far as industry and culture. Since the 1960s, Leninabad is constantly growing. The city expanded onto the right bank of Syr Darya with two bridges across the river. In 1986, the city celebrated a 2500 year anniversary. Based on the Decree of the President of the Supreme Soviet of USSR, the city received an Order of Friendship of the Nations.
Fergana valley and Khujand is known as the Pearl of Central Asia for its favorable geographic location and climate: mountainous landscape, running waters of Syr Darya, clean air. The origin of the word „Khujand” comes from the sun. „Khva” – sun, „kant” or „kent” – city. In antiquity, Khujand used to be called as such - „Khvakant”, a sun city. Local historians claim that the word Khujand is also the combination of the words „Khub” – good, and „Chand” – several, i.e., several good people, who supposedly rebuilt the city after flood and destruction.
Since the anctient times, Khujand has been one of the most important economic, military, strategic and cultural centers of Central Asia due to its location at the crossroads of many trade routes. The Great Silk Road passed through Khujand, connecting Greece, Rome, Asia Minor and Egypt with China. Products made of silk and jewelry made by Khujand jewelers were famous even outside Middle East and Central Asia. Old names of urban neighborhoods like Zargaron (jewelers), Pollakashon (silk-makers), Sangburon (masons) and so forth are a reminder about past importance of these crafts. Khujand has retained its economically strategic location. Via the “gates of Fergana valley” – an alternative name of Khujand during the Middle Ages – passed a highway that connects the Zerafshan valley with the Andijan and Namangan regions of Uzbekistan, and with the Osh and Batkent regions of Kyrgyzstan.
Khujand majestically stretches in the pictureques valley of the Syr Darya river at an altitude of over three hundred meters above the sea level. Modern Khujand is the largest industrial and cultural center of northern Tajikistan, and second largest city in the country. Favorable geography and climate
Худжанд величественно раскинулся в живописной пойме реки Сырдарьи на высоте более трехсот метров над уровнем моря. Сегодня Худжанд — крупнейший индустриально-промышленный и культурный центр Северного Таджикистана и второй по значимости город в республике. The distance from the city center to the train station is 11km, to Dushanbe – 341km. Khujand is linked by rail, air and road routes.
Khujand is the second most populous city in Tajikistan after Dushanbe.The agglomeration accounts for 550 000 people.